As recently as 140 years ago, it was argued that science was not a professional field and that teaching of sciences in schools or universities would have little value. The cognoscenti of the time believed that there was no merit in learning method or techniques; the advance of science depended on enquiring minds, which would best be achieved through training in the liberal arts. The arguments then sound very similar to those that are advanced now with regard to the 'professionalization' of contract and commercial management.
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